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Augmented Reality in Informal Learning Environments: Investigating Short-term and Long-term Effects

P. Sommerauer, O. Müller, in: Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2018

The Impact of Content, Context, and Creator on User Engagement in Social Media Marketing

R. Jaakonmäki, O. Müller, J. vom Brocke, in: Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2017

Social media has become an important tool in establishing relationships between companies and customers. However, creating effective content for social media marketing campaigns is a challenge, as companies have difficulty understanding what drives user engagement. One approach to addressing this challenge is to use analytics on user-generated social media content to understand the relationship between content features and user engagement. In this paper we report on a quantitative study that applies machine learning algorithms to extract textual and visual content features from Instagram posts, along with creator- and context-related variables, and to statistically model their influence on user engagement. Our findings can guide marketing and social media professionals in creating engaging content that communicates more effectively with their audiences.

Reflection, abstraction and theorizing in design and development research

S. Gregor, O. Müller, S. Seidel, in: European Conference on Information Systems, 2013, pp. 12

Design theories have been proposed as means to capture abstract knowledge about the design and development of information technology (IT) and information systems (IS) artifacts. There is now an increasingly accepted and used body of knowledge on the processes of design research and the components of design theories. Explicit guidance is still sparse, however, as to how to extract design theories during design science research. In this paper, we focus on reflection and abstraction in design science research as distinct activities leading to design theory. We suggest an abstraction framework that recognizes different modes of causal analysis related to the discrete decisions made by designers and developers as well as to the artifact in use: creative (mental) causes, active causes, and passive causes. The first recognizes the creativity of the human mind, the second deliberate interventions and their consequences, and the third is built upon the notion of affordances that describe the potential uses of an artifact depending on its use context. We argue that these modes of causal analysis can be used to abstract from specific design processes in order to identify key components of design theory.

A review of event formats as enablers of event-driven BPM

J. Becker, M. Matzner, O. Müller, M. Walter, in: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, 2012, pp. 433--445

Event-driven Business Process Management (EdBPM) is based upon exchanging and processing business events. As yet, no commonly adopted event format for communicating business events between distributed event producers and consumers has emerged. This paper is an effort to review the status quo of event formats against the requirements of EdBPM. We particularly discuss BPAF, CBE, and XES as promising candidates and identify prospects for development.

Extending BPMN for business activity monitoring

J.P. Friedenstab, C. Janiesch, M. Matzner, O. Müller, in: Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2012, pp. 4158--4167

Real-time access to key performance indicators is necessary to ensure timeliness and effectiveness of operational business processes. The concept of Business Activity Monitoring (BAM) refers to the observation, analysis, and presentation of real-time information about business activities across systems' and companies' borders. Designing and maintaining BAM applications is challenging, as the involved concepts (e.g., business processes, audit logs, performance measures) --though being strongly interrelated-- are developed by different communities of practice. Also, they reside on different levels of abstraction, and are handled by different IT systems. Hence, we developed a conceptual modeling language which extends the widely accepted Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) by BAM-relevant concepts. The main results presented in this paper are: (1) a meta-model which formally describes the conceptual aspects of the developed BPMN extension (abstract syntax); (2) graphical symbols as an exemplary representation of this abstract syntax (concrete syntax); (3) a demo scenario that illustrates the application of the language in a fictitious scenario.

A blueprint for event-driven business activity management

C. Janiesch, M. Matzner, O. Müller, in: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2011, pp. 17--28

Timely insight into a company's business processes is of great importance for operational efficiency. However, still today companies struggle with the inflexibility of monitoring solutions and reacting to process information on time. We review the current state of the art of business process management and analytics and put it in relation to complex event processing to explore process data. Following the tri-partition in complex event processing of event producer, processor, and consumer, we develop an architecture for event-driven business activity management which is capable of delivering blueprints for flexible business activity monitoring as well as closed loop action to manage the full circle of automated insight to action. We close with a discussion of future research directions.


ECM implementations in practice: objectives, processes, and technologies

R. Jaakonmäki, A. Simons, O. Müller, J. vom Brocke, Journal of Enterprise Information Management (2018)(5), pp. 704--723


The Effect of Big Data and Analytics on Firm Performance: An Econometric Analysis Considering Industry Characteristics

O. Müller, M. Fay, J. vom Brocke, Journal of Management Information Systems (2018)(2), pp. 488--509

The emergence of big data has stimulated enormous investments into business analytics solutions, but large-scale and reliable empirical evidence about the business value of big data and analytics (BDA) remains scarce. This article presents the results of an econometric study that analyzes the direction, sign, and magnitude of the relationship between BDA and firm performance based on objective measurements of BDA assets. Using a unique panel data set that contains detailed information about BDA solutions owned by 814 companies during the time frame from 2008 to 2014, on the one hand, and their financial performance, on the other hand, we estimate the relationship between BDA assets and firm productivity and find that live BDA assets are associated with an average of 3–7 percent improvement in firm productivity. Yet we also find substantial differences in returns from BDA when we consider the industry in which a firm operates. While firms in information technology-intensive or highly competitive industries are clearly able to extract value from BDA assets, we did not detect measurable productivity improvement for firms outside these industry groups. Taken together, our findings provide robust empirical evidence for the business value of BDA, but also highlight important boundary conditions.

Topic Modeling as a Strategy of Inquiry in Organizational Research: A Tutorial With an Application Example on Organizational Culture

T. Schmiedel, O. Müller, J. vom Brocke, Organizational Research Methods (2018)

Research has emphasized the limitations of qualitative and quantitative approaches to studying organizational phenomena. For example, in-depth interviews are resource-intensive, while questionnaires with closed-ended questions can only measure predefined constructs. With the recent availability of large textual data sets and increased computational power, text mining has become an attractive method that has the potential to mitigate some of these limitations. Thus, we suggest applying topic modeling, a specific text mining technique, as a new and complementary strategy of inquiry to study organizational phenomena. In particular, we outline the potentials of structural topic modeling for organizational research and provide a step-by-step tutorial on how to apply it. Our application example builds on 428,492 reviews of Fortune 500 companies from the online platform Glassdoor, on which employees can evaluate organizations. We demonstrate how structural topic models allow to inductively identify topics that matter to employees and quantify their relationship with employees' perception of organizational culture. We discuss the advantages and limitations of topic modeling as a research method and outline how future research can apply the technique to study organizational phenomena.

Conceptualizing smart service systems

D. Beverungen, O. Müller, M. Matzner, J. Mendling, J. vom Brocke, Electronic Markets (2017), pp. 1--12

Recent years have seen the emergence of physical products that are digitally networked with other products and with information systems to enable complex business scenarios in manufacturing, mobility, or healthcare. These “smart products”, which enable the co-creation of “smart service” that is based on monitoring, optimization, remote control, and autonomous adaptation of products, profoundly transform service systems into what we call “smart service systems”. In a multi-method study that includes conceptual research and qualitative data from in-depth interviews, we conceptualize “smart service” and “smart service systems” based on using smart products as boundary objects that integrate service consumers' and service providers' resources and activities. Smart products allow both actors to retrieve and to analyze aggregated field evidence and to adapt service systems based on contextual data. We discuss the implications that the introduction of smart service systems have for foundational concepts of service science and conclude that smart service systems are characterized by technology-mediated, continuous, and routinized interactions.

Beyond crowd judgments: Data-driven estimation of market value in association football

O. Müller, A. Simons, M. Weinmann, European Journal of Operational Research (2017)(2), pp. 611--624

Association football is a popular sport, but it is also a big business. From a managerial perspective, the most important decisions that team managers make concern player transfers, so issues related to player valuation, especially the determination of transfer fees and market values, are of major concern. Market values can be understood as estimates of transfer fees—that is, prices that could be paid for a player on the football market—so they play an important role in transfer negotiations. These values have traditionally been estimated by football experts, but crowdsourcing has emerged as an increasingly popular approach to estimating market value. While researchers have found high correlations between crowdsourced market values and actual transfer fees, the process behind crowd judgments is not transparent, crowd estimates are not replicable, and they are updated infrequently because they require the participation of many users. Data analytics may thus provide a sound alternative or a complementary approach to crowd-based estimations of market value. Based on a unique data set that is comprised of 4217 players from the top five European leagues and a period of six playing seasons, we estimate players' market values using multilevel regression analysis. The regression results suggest that data-driven estimates of market value can overcome several of the crowd's practical limitations while producing comparably accurate numbers. Our results have important implications for football managers and scouts, as data analytics facilitates precise, objective, and reliable estimates of market value that can be updated at any time.

An open-data approach for quantifying the potential of taxi ridesharing

B. Barann, D. Beverungen, O. Müller, Decision Support Systems (2017), pp. 86--95

Taxi ridesharing1Taxi ridesharing (TRS), also known as shared taxi or collective taxi, is an advanced form of public transportation with flexible routing and scheduling that matches at least two separate ride requests with similar spatio-temporal characteristics in real-time to a jointly used taxi, driven by an employed driver without own destination. TRS, therefore, differs from private ridesharing, which refers to sharing of rides among private people. TRS is a more restricted dynamic dial-a-ride problem, which considers the requirements of both multiple passengers and the service provider. Because of the pooled simultaneous utilization of a taxi, TRS is collaborative consumption [This definition has been pasted from the paper, Section 2.2. References are provided there] (TRS) is an advanced form of urban transportation that matches separate ride requests with similar spatio-temporal characteristics to a jointly used taxi. As collaborative consumption, TRS saves customers money, enables taxi companies to economize use of their resources, and lowers greenhouse gas emissions. We develop a one-to-one TRS approach that matches rides with similar start and end points. We evaluate our approach by analyzing an open dataset of {\textgreater} 5 million taxi trajectories in New York City. Our empirical analysis reveals that the proposed approach matches up to 48.34{\%} of all taxi rides, saving 2,892,036 km of travel distance, 231,362.89 l of gas, and 532,134.64 kg of CO2emissions per week. Compared to many-to-many TRS approaches, our approach is competitive, simpler to implement and operate, and poses less rigid assumptions on data availability and customer acceptance

Utilizing big data analytics for information systems research: Challenges, promises and guidelines

O. Müller, I. Junglas, J. vom Brocke, S. Debortoli, European Journal of Information Systems (2016)(4), pp. 289--302

This essay discusses the use of big data analytics (BDA) as a strategy of enquiry for advancing information systems (IS) research. In broad terms, we understand BDA as the statistical modelling of large, diverse, and dynamic data sets of user-generated content and digital traces. BDA, as a new paradigm for utilising big data sources and advanced analytics, has already found its way into some social science disciplines. Sociology and economics are two examples that have successfully harnessed BDA for scientific enquiry. Often, BDA draws on methodologies and tools that are unfamiliar for some IS researchers (e.g., predictive modelling, natural language processing). Following the phases of a typical research process, this article is set out to dissect BDA's challenges and promises for IS research, and illustrates them by means of an exemplary study about predicting the helpfulness of 1.3 million online customer reviews. In order to assist IS researchers in planning, executing, and interpreting their own studies, and evaluating the studies of others, we propose an initial set of guidelines for conducting rigorous BDA studies in IS.

Text Mining for Information Systems Researchers: An Annotated Tutorial

S. Debortoli, O. Müller, I. Junglas, J. vom Brocke, Communications of the Association for Information Systems (2016), pp. 555--582

Analysts have estimated that more than 80 percent of today's data is stored in unstructured form (e.g., text, audio, image, video)—much of it expressed in rich and ambiguous natural language. Traditionally, to analyze natural language, one has used qualitative data-analysis approaches, such as manual coding. Yet, the size of text data sets obtained from the Internet makes manual analysis virtually impossible. In this tutorial, we discuss the challenges encountered when applying automated text-mining techniques in information systems research. In particular, we showcase how to use probabilistic topic modeling via Latent Dirichlet allocation, an unsupervised text-mining technique, with a LASSO multinomial logistic regression to explain user satisfaction with an IT artifact by automatically analyzing more than 12,000 online customer reviews. For fellow information systems researchers, this tutorial provides guidance for conducting text-mining studies on their own and for evaluating the quality of others.

Towards a typology of business process management professionals: identifying patterns of competences through latent semantic analysis

O. Müller, T. Schmiedel, E. Gorbacheva, J. vom Brocke, Enterprise Information Systems (2016)(1), pp. 50--80


Using text analytics to derive customer service management benefits from unstructured data

O. Müller, S. Debortoli, I. Junglas, J. vom Brocke, MIS Quarterly Executive (2016)(4), pp. 243--258

Deriving value from structured data is now commonplace. The value of unstructured textual data, however, remains mostly untapped and often unrecognized. This article describes the text analytics journeys of three organizations in the customer service management area. Based on their experiences, we provide four lessons that can guide other organizations as they embark on their text analytics journeys.

The Role of Gender in Business Process Management Competence Supply

E. Gorbacheva, A. Stein, T. Schmiedel, O. Müller, Business and Information Systems Engineering (2016)(3), pp. 213--231

While Business Process Management (BPM) was originally focused on Information Technology as a key factor driving the efficiency and effectiveness of organizational processes, there is now a growing consensus among practitioners and academics that BPM represents a holistic management approach that also takes such factors as corporate governance, human capital, and organizational culture into account. Studies show that the BPM practice faces a shortage of competence supply that stems from a shortage of qualified BPM professionals. At the same time, there is a distinct underrepresentation of women in technology-related fields; it has been suggested that gender stereotypes are one of the reasons for this underrepresentation. The goal of this research paper is, thus, to better understand the role of gender in the BPM competences supply. In this study 10,405 LinkedIn profiles of BPM professionals were analyzed using a text mining technique called Latent Semantic Analysis. Twelve distinct categories of supplied BPM competences were identified and it was investigated how far gender biases exist among BPM professionals. The nature of BPM-related competences is discussed, together with the differences in their presentation by male and female professionals, which indicate potential existence of gender stereotypes. Further, it is discussed how the apparent underrepresentation of women among BPM professionals can be addressed to close the competence gap in the field. The study contributes to both the call for research on human capital in the BPM field, and the calls for research on gender and gender stereotypes in technology-related fields.

How In-Memory Technology Can Create Business Value: Lessons Learned from Hilti

J. vom Brocke, S. Debortoli, N. Reuter, O. Müller, Communications of the Association for Information Systems (2014), pp. 151--167

With in-memory technology, all data and applications are kept in the computer's main memory to avoid expensive mechanical hard-drive I/O access, reduce latency times, and increase the ability to process large volumes of data or complex data. In this "innovation and novel concepts" article, we discuss how in-memory technology may create business value. Based on our experiences in collaborating with the Hilti Corporation, one of the first adopters of SAP's in-memory technology appliance (SAP HANA), we describe and discuss illustrative application scenarios that are made possible through the increased computing power offered by in-memory technology. Based on these scenarios, we identify principles of value creation through in-memory technology: the first-order effects of reduced latency times and increased ability to process large volumes of complex data (big data processing) that lead to the second-order effects of advanced business analytics and the convergence of OLTP and OLAP that themselves lead to business value through improved organizational performance.

New frontiers in business process management

T. Kohlborn, O. Müller, J. Pöppelbuss, M. Röglinger, Business Process Management Journal (2014)(4), pp. 3--6


Comparing business intelligence and big data skills: A text mining study using job advertisements

S. Debortoli, O. Müller, J. vom Brocke, Business and Information Systems Engineering (2014)(5), pp. 289--300

While many studies on big data analytics describe the data deluge and potential applications for such analytics, the required skill set for dealing with big data has not yet been studied empirically. The difference between big data (BD) and traditional business intelligence (BI) is also heavily discussed among practitioners and scholars. We conduct a latent semantic analysis (LSA) on job advertisements harvested from the online employment platform to extract information about the knowledge and skill requirements for BD and BI professionals. By analyzing and interpreting the statistical results of the LSA, we develop a competency taxonomy for big data and business intelligence. Our major findings are that (1) business knowledge is as important as technical skills for working successfully on BI and BD initiatives; (2) BI competency is characterized by skills related to commercial products of large software vendors, whereas BD jobs ask for strong software development and statistical skills; (3) the demand for BI competencies is still far bigger than the demand for BD competencies; and (4) BD initiatives are currently much more human-capital-intensive than BI projects are. Our findings can guide individual professionals, organizations, and academic institutions in assessing and advancing their BD and BI competencies.

Bridging the gap between manufacturing and service through IT-based boundary objects

J. Becker, D. Beverungen, R. Knackstedt, M. Matzner, O. Müller, J. Pöppelbuss, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management (2013)(3), pp. 468--482

Manufacturing and service companies increasingly engage in networks to provide their customers with integrated solutions. In order to leverage complementary resources and capabilities fully, the network actors must span traditional boundaries between communities of practice in manufacturing and service. Fields like supply chain management and business process management, as well as the literature on boundary spanning, offer little guidance for the systematic identification of boundary objects that could be used to bridge this gap. Drawing on existing works on boundary objects and service blueprinting, we design a new method for diagnosing boundary-spanning processes and identifying candidates for IT-based boundary objects that integrate manufacturing and service companies' subprocesses. The method was iteratively developed over a period of three years in a cyclic action research project with two business-to-business service networks in the mechanical and electrical engineering industries. {\textcopyright} 1988-2012 IEEE.

Designing interaction routines in service networks: A modularity and social construction-based approach

J. Becker, D. Beverungen, R. Knackstedt, M. Matzner, O. Müller, J. Pöppelbuss, Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems (2013)(1), pp. 17--47

Service networks made up of manufacturers and service firms to satisfy complex customer needs are proliferating. By exploiting their complementary competencies, such service networks enable their members to provide innovative and integrated solutions that could not be offered by any of the firms alone. The successful formation and operation of service networks requires the analysis and (re-)design of interaction routines that facilitate planning and coordination based on a mutual exchange of information. We argue that conceptual models are artifacts that enable networked organizations to improve how well they manage these interaction routines. Against this backdrop, this article makes four major contributions. First, a conceptual modelling language based on the design principle of modular decomposition of network complexity is developed for specifying interaction routines in service networks. Second, a workshop-based modeling method based on the design principle of social construction of networks is developed for the purpose of guiding the (re-)design process itself. Third, the developed language and method are embedded into a software tool, and the utility of this ensemble artifact is demonstrated and evaluated using cases of service networks in the construction industry. Fourth, a set of evaluation criteria is proposed for the purpose of assessing tool-supported conceptual modeling workshops and for evaluating other types of conceptual workshops. {\textcopyright} Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems.

Beyond process monitoring: A proof-of-concept of event-driven business activity management

C. Janiesch, M. Matzner, O. Müller, Business Process Management Journal (2012)(4), pp. 625--643

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how to employ complex event processing (CEP) for the observation and management of business processes. It proposes a conceptual architecture of BPM event producer, processor, and consumer and describes technical implications for the application with standard software in a perfect order scenario. Design/methodology/approach – The authors discuss business process analytics as the technological background. The capabilities of CEP in a BPM context are outlined an architecture design is proposed. A sophisticated proof-of-concept demonstrates its applicability. Findings – The results overcome the separation and data latency issues of process controlling, monitoring, and simulation. Distinct analyses of past, present, and future blur into a holistic real-time approach. The authors highlight the necessity for configurable event producer in BPM engines, process event support in CEP engines, a common process event format, connectors to visualizers, notifiers and return channels to the BPM engine. Research limitations/implications – Further research will thoroughly evaluate the approach in a variety of business settings. New concepts and standards for the architecture's building blocks will be needed to improve maintainability and operability. Practical implications – Managers learn how CEP can yield insights into business processes' operations. The paper illustrates a path to overcome inflexibility, latency, and missing feedback mechanisms of current process modeling and control solutions. Software vendors might be interested in the conceptualization and the described needs for further development. Originality/value – So far, there is no commercial CEP-based BPM solution which facilitates a round trip from insight to action as outlines. As major software vendors have begun developing solutions (BPM/BPA solutions), this paper will stimulate a debate between research and practice on suitable design and technology.

Leaving the Beaten Tracks in Creative Work – A Design Theory for Systems that Support Convergent and Divergent Thinking

F. Müller-Wienbergen, O. Müller, S. Seidel, J. Becker, Journal of the Association for Information Systems (2011)(11), pp. 714--740

Existing knowledge is a vital prerequisite for creativity. I t provides a c entral source of inspiration for new ideas and determines the p athways a vailable f or c reative p roblem solving. N otwithstanding i ts indisputable r ole, knowledge may also compromise creativity. The human mind is prone to reproduce what it is used to, and the provision of e xplicit knowledge constitutes a potential inhibitor of imagination. Hence, IT s ystems supporting creative work have to support creative individuals by extending their personal knowledge while, at the same time, preventing them f rom merely walking down beaten tracks. In this article, grounded in theory on human cognition a nd literature on creativity s upport, we p ropose a design theory for I T s ystems that support b oth convergent and divergent thinking, that is, the central cognitive processes in creative work. We provide details on a p rototypical implementation, d iscuss an i llustrative c ase from the c reative i ndustries in or der to demonstrate the design's applicability, and outline plans for an empirical evaluation of the proposed design theory.

Enabling individualized recommendations and dynamic pricing of value-added services through willingness-to-pay data

K. Backhaus, J. Becker, D. Beverungen, M. Frohs, O. Müller, M. Weddeling, R. Knackstedt, M. Steiner, Electronic Markets (2010)(2), pp. 131--146

Model-Based Decision Support for the Customer-Specific Configuration of Value Bundles

J. Becker, D. Beverungen, R. Knackstedt, O. Müller, Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures (2009)(1), pp. 26--38


Entwicklung Serviceorientierter Architekturen zur Integration von Produktion und Dienstleistung – Eine Konzeptionsmethode und ihre Anwendung am Beispiel des Recyclings elektronischer Geräte

D. Beverungen, R. Knackstedt, O. Müller, WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK (2008)(3), pp. 220--234

Zusammenfassung Die Erstellung von Leistungsb{\"{u}}ndeln aus Sach- und Dienstleistungen wird f{\"{u}}r Unternehmen immer bedeutender. Dabei setzen eine Ver{\"{a}}nderung der organisatorischen Rahmenbedingungen und die dynamische Anpassung der Leistungserstellung an wechselnde Kundenanforderungen wandlungsf{\"{a}}hige Informationssystemarchitekturen in Produktion und Dienstleistung voraus. Serviceorientierte Architekturen (SOA) leisten einen Beitrag zur Erh{\"{o}}hung dieser Wandlungsf{\"{a}}higkeit. Jedoch ist die Identifikation, Spezifikation und Implementierung von Services als Basis der Serviceorientierten Architekturen bislang nur unzureichend methodisch unterst{\"{a}}tzt. Der Schlie{\ss}ung dieser Forschungsl{\"{u}}cke dient eine Konzeptionsmethode, die Ans{\"{a}}tze zur Kundenintegration adaptiert und eine betriebswirtschaftliche mit einer informationstechnischen Analyse verbindet. Die Anwendbarkeit der Methode wird dabei anhand der prototypischen Erstellung einer Serviceorientierten Architektur f{\"{u}}r das Recycling elektronischer Ger{\"{a}}te demonstriert. Die angestrebte Ausweitung der Architektur auf weitere Leistungsb{\"{u}}ndel und die Standardisierung der dabei spezifizierten Services zielen darauf ab, in zuk{\"{u}}nftigen Arbeiten die Aussch{\"{o}}pfung bestehender Potentiale bei der Integration von Produktion und Dienstleistung durch die Bereitstellung einer umfassenden Referenzarchitektur zu f{\"{o}}rdern.

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