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Publications - Journal Articles


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2019

Network Formation and Disruption - An Experiment: Are equilibrium networks too complex?

A.E. Endres, S. Recker, B. Mir Djawadi, B. Hoyer, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization (2019), 157, pp. 708-734

Models on network formation have often been extended to include the potential of network disruption in recent years. Whereas the theoretical research on network formation under the threat of disruption has thus gained prominence, hardly any experimental research exists so far. In this paper, we therefore experimentally study the emergence of networks including the aspect of a known external threat by relating theoretical predictions by Dzuibiński and Goyal (2013) to actual observed behaviour. We deal with the question if subjects in the role of a strategic Designer are able to form safe networks for least costs while facing a strategic Adversary who is going to attack their networks. Varying the costs for protecting nodes, we designed and tested two treatments with different predictions for the equilibrium network and investigated whether one of the least cost equilibrium networks was more likely to be reached. Furthermore, the influence of the subjects’ farsightedness on their decision-making process was elicited and analysed. We find that while subjects are able to build safe networks in both treatments, equilibrium networks are only built in one of the two treatments. In the other treatment, predominantly safe networks are built but they are not for least costs. Additionally, we find that farsightedness –as measured in our experiment– has no influence on whether subjects are able to build safe or least cost equilibrium networks. Two robustness settings with a reduced external threat or more liberties to modify the initial networks qualitatively confirm our results. Overall, in this experiment observed behaviour is only partially in line with the theoretical predictions by Dzuibiński and Goyal (2013).


Secular stagnation? Is there statistical evidence of an unprecedented, systematic decline in growth?

M. Fritz, T. Gries, Y. Feng, Economics Letters (2019), 181, pp. 47-50

DOI


A New Theory of Demand-Restricted Growth: The Basic Idea

T. Gries, The American Economist (2019)

DOI


Pirates – The Young and the Jobless: The Effect of Youth Bulges and Youth Labor Market Integration on Maritime Piracy

T. Gries, M. Redlin, Defence and Peace Economics (2019), 30(3), pp. 309-323

DOI


Growth Trends and Systematic Patterns of Boom and Busts –Testing 200 Years of Business Cycle Dynamics

T. Gries, M. Fritz, F. Yuanhua, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics (2019), 81(1), pp. 62-78

DOI


The Common Enemy Effect under Strategic Network Formation and Disruption

B. Hoyer, H. Haller, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization (2019), 162, pp. 146-163

Social psychology studies the "common enemy effect", the phenomenon that members of a group work together when they face an opponent, although they otherwise have little in common. An interesting scenario is the formation of an information network where group members individually sponsor costly links. Suppose that ceteris paribus, an outsider appears who aims to disrupt the information flow within the network by deleting some of the links. The question is how the group responds to this common enemy. We address this question for the homogeneous connections model of strategic network formation, with two-way flow of information and without information decay. For sufficiently low linkage costs, the external threat can lead to a more connected network, a positive common enemy effect. For very high but not prohibitively high linkage costs, the equilibrium network can be minimally connected and efficient in the absence of the external threat whereas it is always empty and ineffi cient in the presence of the external threat, a negative common enemy effect. For intermediate linkage costs, both connected networks and the empty network are Nash for certain cost ranges.


Economic Retirement Age and Lifelong Learning - a theoretical model with heterogeneous labor and biased technical change

T. Gries, S. Jungblut, T. Krieger, H. Meyer, German Economic Review (2019), 20(2), pp. 129-170

DOI


2018

Determinants of Equilibrium Selection in Network Formation - An Experiment

B. Hoyer, S. Rosenkranz, Games (2018), 9(4)


The Generalized Nash Bargaining Solution for Transfer Price Negotiations under Incomplete Information

C. Haake, S. Recker, Group Decision and Negotiation (2018), 27(6), pp. 905-932

In our model two divisions negotiate over type-dependent contracts to determine an intrafirm transfer price for an intermediate product. Since the upstream division's (seller's) costs and downstream division's (buyer's) revenues are supposed to be private information, we formally consider cooperative bargaining problems under incomplete information. This means that the two divisions consider allocations of expected utility generated by mechanisms that satisfy (interim) individual rationality, incentive compatibility and/or ex post efficiency. Assuming two possible types for buyer and seller each, we first establish that the bargaining problem is regular, regardless whether or not incentive and/or efficiency constraints are imposed. This allows us to apply the generalized Nash bargaining solution to determine fair transfer payments and transfer quantities. In particular, the generalized Nash bargaining solution tries to balance divisional profits, while incentive constraints are still in place. In that sense a fair profit division is generated. Furthermore, by means of illustrative examples we derive general properties of this solution for the transfer pricing problem and compare the model developed here with the models existing in the literature. We demonstrate that there is a tradeoff between ex post efficiency and fairness.


Human-induced climate change: the impact of land-use change

T. Gries, M. Redlin, J.E. Ugarte, Theoretical and Applied Climatology (2018)

DOI


New Evidence on Employment Effects of Informal Care Provision in Europe

I.W. Kolodziej, A.R. Reichert, H. Schmitz, Health services research (2018)


Maintaining vs. Milking Good Reputation when Customer Feedback is Inaccurate

B. Mir Djawadi, R. Fahr, C. Haake, S. Recker, PLoS ONE (2018), 13(11)

In Internet transactions, customers and service providers often interact once and anonymously. To prevent deceptive behavior a reputation system is particularly important to reduce information asymmetries about the quality of the offered product or service. In this study we examine the effectiveness of a reputation system to reduce information asymmetries when customers may make mistakes in judging the provided service quality. In our model, a service provider makes strategic quality choices and short-lived customers are asked to evaluate the observed quality by providing ratings to a reputation system. The customer is not able to always evaluate the service quality correctly and possibly submits an erroneous rating according to a predefined probability. Considering reputation profiles of the last three sales, within the theoretical model we derive that the service provider’s dichotomous quality decisions are independent of the reputation profile and depend only on the probabilities of receiving positive and negative ratings when providing low or high quality. Thus, a service provider optimally either maintains a good reputation or completely refrains from any reputation building process. However, when mapping our theoretical model to an experimental design we find that a significant share of subjects in the role of the service provider deviates from optimal behavior and chooses actions which are conditional on the current reputation profile. With respect to these individual quality choices we see that subjects use milking strategies which means that they exploit a good reputation. In particular, if the sales price is high, low quality is delivered until the price drops below a certain threshold, and then high quality is chosen until the price increases again.


Preemptive Repression: Deterrence, Backfiring, Iron Fists and Velvet Gloves

K. De Jaegher, B. Hoyer, Journal of Conflict Resolution (2018), 63(2), pp. 502--527

We present a game-theoretic model of the repression–dissent nexus, focusing on preemptive repression. A small group of instigating dissidents triggers a protest if each dissident participates. The dissidents face random checks by security forces, and when an individual dissident is caught while preparing to participate, he or she is prevented from doing so. Each dissident can invest in countermeasures, which make checks ineffective. For large benefits of protest, higher preemptive repression in the form of a higher number of checks has a deterrence effect and makes dissidents less prone to invest in countermeasures, decreasing the probability of protest. For small benefits of protest, higher preemptive repression instead has a backfiring effect. Both myopic and farsighted governments avoid the backfiring effect by setting low levels of preemptive repression (velvet-glove strategy). However, only a farsighted government is able to exploit the deterrence effect by maintaining a high level of preemptive repression (iron-fist strategy).


Fertility and Modernization: The Role of Urbanization in Developing Countries

T. Gries, R. Grundmann, Journal of International Development (2018), 30(3), pp. 493-506

DOI


Price competition and the Bertrand model: The paradox of the German mobile discount market

D. Kaimann, B. Hoyer, Applied Economics Letters (2018), 26(1), pp. 54-57

We investigate the degree of price competition among telecommunication firms. Underlying a Bertrand model of price competition, we empirically model pricing behaviour in an oligopoly. We analyse panel data of individual pricing information of mobile phone contracts offered between 2011 and 2017. We provide empirical evidence that price differences as well as reputational effects serve as a signal to buyers and significantly affect market demand. Additionally, we find that brands lead to an increase in demand and thus are able to generate spillover effects even after price increase.


2017

The effects of competition on medical service provision

J. Brosig-Koch, B. Hehenkamp, J. Kokot, Health Economics (2017), 26(53), pp. 6-20

We explore how competition between physicians affects medical service provision. Previous research has shown that, without competition, physicians deviate from patient‐optimal treatment under payment systems like capitation and fee‐for‐service. Although competition might reduce these distortions, physicians usually interact with each other repeatedly over time and only a fraction of patients switches providers at all. Both patterns might prevent competition to work in the desired direction. To analyze the behavioral effects of competition, we develop a theoretical benchmark that is then tested in a controlled laboratory experiment. Experimental conditions vary physician payment and patient characteristics. Real patients benefit from provision decisions made in the experiment. Our results reveal that, in line with the theoretical prediction, introducing competition can reduce overprovision and underprovision, respectively. The observed effects depend on patient characteristics and the payment system, though. Tacit collusion is observed and particularly pronounced with fee‐for‐service payment, but it appears to be less frequent than in related experimental research on price competition.


Technology diffusion, international integration and participation in developing economies - a review of major concepts and findings

T. Gries, R. Grundmann, I. Palnau, M. Redlin, International Economics and Economic Policy (2017), 15(1), pp. 215-253

DOI


Informal Care and Long-term Labor Market Outcomes

H. Schmitz, M. Westphal, Journal of Health Economics 56, 1-18 (2017)


On the interdependence of ambulatory and hospital care in the German health system

T. Büyükdurmus, T. Kopetsch, H. Schmitz, H. Tauchmann, Health economics review (2017), 7(1), pp. 2


Innovations, growth and participation in advanced economies - a review of major concepts and findings

T. Gries, R. Grundmann, I. Palnau, M. Redlin, International Economics and Economic Policy (2017), 14(2), pp. 293-351

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Slow Booms and Deep Busts: 160 Years of Business Cycles in Spain

T. Gries, M. Fritz, Y. Feng, Review of Economics (2017), 68 (2), pp. 153-166

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Sick already? Job loss makes it even worse

H. Schmitz, V. Schiele, Atlas of Science (2017)


2016

Strategic Network Disruption and Defense

B. Hoyer, K. De Jaegher, Journal of Public Economic Theory (2016), 18(5), pp. 802-830

We study a game between a network designer, who uses costly links to connect nodes in a network, and a network disruptor who tries to disrupt the resulting network as much as possible by deleting either nodes or links. For low linking costs networks with all nodes in symmetric positions are a best response of the designer under both link deletion and node deletion. For high linking costs the designer builds a star network under link deletion, but for node deletion excludes some nodes from the network to build a smaller but stronger network. For intermediate linking costs the designer again builds a symmetric network under node deletion but a star‐like network with weak spots under link deletion.


Quantile treatment effects of job loss on health

V. Schiele, H. Schmitz, Journal of Health Economics (2016), pp. 59--69


Towards an Economic Theory of Destabilization War

T. Gries, C. Haake, Peace Economics and Peace Science (2016), 22(4), pp. 377-384

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Sustainability of coalitional equilibria within repeated tax competition

S. Brangewitz, S. Brockhoff, European Journal of Political Economy (2016), 49, pp. 1-23

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Determinants of regional variation in health expenditures in Germany

D. Göpffarth, T. Kopetsch, H. Schmitz, Health economics (2016), 25(7), pp. 801--815


By-product mutualism and the ambiguous effects of harsher environments – A game-theoretic model

K. De Jaegher, B. Hoyer, Journal of Theoretical Biology (2016), 393, pp. 82-97

We construct two-player two-strategy game-theoretic models of by-product mutualism, where our focus lies on the way in which the probability of cooperation among players is affected by the degree of adversity facing the players. In our first model, cooperation consists of the production of a public good, and adversity is linked to the degree of complementarity of the players׳ efforts in producing the public good. In our second model, cooperation consists of the defense of a public, and/or a private good with by-product benefits, and adversity is measured by the number of random attacks (e.g., by a predator) facing the players. In both of these models, our analysis confirms the existence of the so-called boomerang effect, which states that in a harsh environment, the individual player has few incentives to unilaterally defect in a situation of joint cooperation. Focusing on such an effect in isolation leads to the "common-enemy" hypothesis that a larger degree of adversity increases the probability of cooperation. Yet, we also find that a sucker effect may simultaneously exist, which says that in a harsh environment, the individual player has few incentives to unilaterally cooperate in a situation of joint defection. Looked at in isolation, the sucker effect leads to the competing hypothesis that a larger degree of adversity decreases the probability of cooperation. Our analysis predicts circumstances in which the "common enemy" hypothesis prevails, and circumstances in which the competing hypothesis prevails.


Towards an Economic Theory of Destabilization War

T. Gries, C. Haake, Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy (2016), 22(4), pp. 377 - 384

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The Entrepreneurship Beveridge Curve

T. Gries, S. Jungblut, W. Naudé, International Journal of Economic Theory (2016), 12(2), pp. 151-165

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Competition of Intermediaries in a Differentiated Duopoly

S. Brangewitz, J. Manegold, Theoretical Economics Letters (2016), 6(6), pp. 1341-1362

On an intermediate goods market with asymmetric production technologies as well as vertical and horizontal product differentiation we analyze the influence of simultaneous competition for resources and customers. The intermediaries face either price or quantity competition on the output market and a monopolistic, strategically acting supplier on the input market. We find that there exist quality and productivity differences such that for quantity competition only one intermediary is willing to procure inputs from the input supplier, while for price competition both intermediaries are willing to purchase inputs. Moreover, the well-known welfare advantage of price competition can in general be no longer confirmed in our model with an endogenous input market and asymmetric intermediaries.


Public reporting and the quality of care of German nursing homes

A. Herr, T. Nguyen, H. Schmitz, Health Policy (2016), 120(10), pp. 1162--1170


Reanalyzing Zero Returns to Education in Germany

D.A. Kamhöfer, H. Schmitz, Journal of Applied Econometrics (2016), 31(5), pp. 912-919

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Explaining inter-provincial migration in China

T. Gries, M.. Kraft, M. Simon, Papers in Regional Science (2016), 4(95), pp. 709-731

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2015

Robust Equilibria in Location Games

B. Buechel, N. Röhl, European Journal of Operational Research (2015), 240(2), pp. 505-517

In the framework of spatial competition, two or more players strategically choose a locationin order to attract consumers. It is assumed standardly that consumers with the same favorite location fully agree on the ranking of all possible locations. To investigate the necessity of this questionable and restrictive assumption, we model heterogeneity in consumers’ distance perceptions by individual edge lengths of a given graph. A profile of location choices is called a “robust equilibrium” if it is a Nash equilibrium in several games which differ only by the consumers’ perceptions of distances. For a finite number of players and any distribution of consumers, we provide a full characterization of all robust equilibria and derive structural conditions for their existence. Furthermore, we discuss whether the classical observations of minimal differentiation and inefficiency are robust phenomena. Thereby, we find strong support for an old conjecture that in equilibrium firms form local clusters.


Changes of China’s agri-food exports to Germany caused by its accession to WTO and the 2008 financial crisis

T. Gries, Y. Feng, Z. Guo, China Agricultural Economic Review (2015), 7(2), pp. 262-279

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Rationalisierung vs. Rationierung Ist die Rationierung unvermeidbar?

H. Schmitz, Patient Gesundheitswesen – Mission 2030 Unsere gemeinsame Verantwortung die Zukunft zu gestalten (2015)


Sustaining Civil Peace: a configurational comparative analysis

T. Gries, I. Palnau, Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy (2015), 21( 4), pp. 467 -478

DOI


Short-and medium-term effects of informal care provision on female caregivers’ health

H. Schmitz, M. Westphal, Journal of health economics (2015), pp. 174--185


Oppressive Governments, Dependence on the United States and Anti-American Terrorism

T. Gries, D. Meierrieks, M. Redlin, Oxford Economic Papers (2015), 67(1), pp. 83 - 103

DOI


Playing the Lottery or Dressing Up? A Model of Firm-Level Heterogeneity and the Decision to Export

T. Gries, W. Naudé, N. Bilkic, The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance (2015), 58, pp. 1-17

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2014

Household Savings and Productive Capital Formation in Rural Vietnam: Insurance vs. Social Network

T. Gries, H.V. Dung, Modern Economy (2014), 5, pp. 878-894

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Too Much of a Good Thing? Welfare Consequences of Market Transparency

Y. Gu, B. Hehenkamp, Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics JITE (2014), 170(2), pp. 225-248

This paper studies welfare consequences of consumer-side market transparency with endogenous entry of firms. Different from most studies, we consider the unique symmetric entry equilibrium, which is in mixed strategies. We identify two effects of market transparency on welfare: a competition effect and a novel market-structure effect. We show, surprisingly, that for almost all demand functions the negative market-structure effect eventually dominates the positive competition effect as the market becomes increasingly transparent. Consumer-side market transparency can therefore be socially excessive even without collusion. The only exception among commonly used demand functions is the set of constant demand functions.


Kehrtwende in der Gesundheitspolitik - Unnötige Abkehr von einer erfolgreichen Reform zur Finanzierung der gesetzlichen Krankenversicherung

H. Schmitz, B. Augurzky, U. Roppel, RWI Position (2014), 59


Competitive outcomes and the inner core of NTU market games

S. Brangewitz, J. Gamp, Economic Theory (2014), 57(3), pp. 529-554

DOI


A Crook is a Crook … But is He Still a Crook Abroad? On the Effect of Immigration on Destination-Country Corruption

E. Dimant, T. Krieger, M. Redlin, German Economic Review (2014), 16(4), pp. 464-489

DOI


Collective action and the common enemy effect

K. De Jaegher, B. Hoyer, Defence and Peace Economics (2014), 27(5), pp. 644-664

How is collective defence by players affected when they face a threat from an intelligent attacker rather than a natural threat? This paper analyses this question using a game-theoretic model. Facing an intelligent attacker has an effect if players move first and visibly set their defence strategies, thereby exposing any players who do not defend, and if the attacker is, moreover, not able to commit to a random attack. Depending on the parameters of the game, the presence of an intelligent attacker either increases the probability that players jointly defend (where such joint defence either does or does not constitute a utilitarian optimum), or decreases the probability that players jointly defend (even though joint defence is a utilitarian optimum).


Regional variation in the utilisation of ambulatory services in Germany

T. Kopetsch, H. Schmitz, Health economics (2014), 23(12), pp. 1481--1492


Broke, ill, and obese: is there an effect of household debt on health?

M. Keese, H. Schmitz, Review of Income and Wealth (2014), 60(3), pp. 525--541


Trade and fertility in the developing world: the impact of trade and trade structure

T. Gries, R. Grundmann, Journal of Population Economics (2014), 27(4), pp. 1165-1186

DOI


Testing the relationship between income inequality and life expectancy: A simple correction for the aggregation effect when using aggregated data

T. Mayrhofer, H. Schmitz, Journal of Population Economics (2014), 27(3), pp. 841--856


2013

Health and the double burden of full-time work and informal care provision—Evidence from administrative data

H. Schmitz, M.A. Stroka, Labour Economics (2013), pp. 305--322


Unsustainable Sovereign Debt - Is the Euro Crisis only the Tip of the Iceberg?

T. Gries, N. Bilkic, B. Carerras Painter, International Economics and Economic Policy (2013), 10(1), pp. 1 - 45

DOI


Global Asymmetries and their Implications for Climate and Industrial Policies, in: Pathways to Industrialization in the Twenty-First Century - New Challenges and Emerging Paradigms

T. Gries, Oxford University Press (2013), ch. 11, pp. 293-323

DOI


Do banking crises cause terrorism?

T. Gries, D. Meierrieks, Economics Letters (2013), 119(3), pp. 321-324

DOI


Asymmetric Nash bargaining solutions and competitive payoffs

S. Brangewitz, J. Gamp, Economics Letters (2013), 121(2), pp. 224-227

DOI


Practice budgets and the patient mix of physicians-Evaluating the effects of remuneration system reforms on physician behaviour in Germany

H. Schmitz, Journal of Health Economics (2013), 32(6), pp. 1240-1249


What accounts for the regional differences in the utilisation of hospitals in Germany?

B. Augurzky, T. Kopetsch, H. Schmitz, The European Journal of Health Economics (2013), 14(4), pp. 615--627


Causality Between Terrorism and Economic Growth

T. Gries, D. Meierrieks, Journal of Peace Research (2013), 50(1), pp. 91 - 104

DOI


2012

Negotiating Transfer Prices

C. Haake, J.T. Martini, Group Decision and Negotiation (2012), 22(4), pp. 657-680

DOI


On the institutional design of burden sharing when financing external border enforcement in the EU

C. Haake, T. Krieger, S. Minter, International Economics and Economic Policy (2012), 10(4), pp. 583-612

DOI


Stay in school or start working?- The human capital investment decision under uncertainty and irreversibility

T. Gries, N.. Bilkic, M. Pilichowski, Labour Economics (2012), 19(5), pp. 706 - 717

DOI


Economic performance and terrorist activity in Latin America

T. Gries, D. Meierrieks, Defence and Peace Economics (2012), 23(5), pp. 447 - 470

DOI


More health care utilization with more insurance coverage? Evidence from a latent class model with German data

H. Schmitz, Applied Economics (2012)(34), pp. 4455--4468


A Tax Paradox for Investment Decisions under Uncertainty

T. Gries, U. Prior, C. Sureth, Journal of Public Economics Theory (2012), 14(3), pp. 521 - 545

DOI


Regionale Unterschiede in der stationären Versorgung: Das ländliche Krankenhaus im Fokus

H. Schmitz, B. Augurzky, A. Beivers, Krankenhaus-Report 2012 (2012)


2011

Why are the unemployed in worse health? The causal effect of unemployment on health

H. Schmitz, Labour Economics (2011)(1), pp. 71--78


Causal Linkages Between Domestic Terrorism and Economic Growth

T. Gries, T. Krieger, D. Meierrieks, Defence and Peace Economics (2011), 22(5), pp. 493 - 508

DOI


SME performance in transition economies: The financial regulation and firm level corruption nexus

T. Gries, A. Wieneke, Journal of Comparative Economics (2011), 39(2), pp. 221 - 229

DOI


Profit efficiency and ownership of German hospitals

A. Herr, H. Schmitz, B. Augurzky, Health Economics (2011)(6), pp. 660--674


What determines influenza vaccination take-up of elderly Europeans?

H. Schmitz, A. Wübker, Health Economics (2011)(11), pp. 1281--1297


Entrepreneurship and human development - A capability approach

T. Gries, W. Naudé, Journal of Public Economics (2011), 95(3-4), pp. 216 - 224

DOI


Income Determination and Income Discrimination in Shenzhen

T. Gries, S. Gravemeyer, J. Xue, Urban Studies (2011), 48(7), pp. 1457-1475

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International integration and the determinants of regional development in China

T. Gries, M. Redlin, Economic Change and Restructuring (2011), 44(1-2), pp. 149-177

DOI


Proportionality and the power of unequal parties

D. Dimitrov, C. Haake, International Journal of Economic Theory (2011), 7(2), pp. 189-200

In this paper we introduce the concept of an overall power function that is meant to combine two sources of a party’s power in a parliament. The first source is based on the possibilities for the party to be part of a majority coalition and it is typically modeled using a cooperative simple game. The second source takes into account parties’ asymmetries outside the cooperative game and it is displayed by a vector of exogenously given weights. We adopt a normative point of view and provide an axiomatic characterization of a specific overall power function, in which the weights enter in a proportional fashion.


Direct evidence of risk aversion as a source of advantageous selection in health insurance

H. Schmitz, Economics Letters (2011)(2), pp. 180--182


Paying for Performance in Hospitals

B. Hehenkamp, O. Kaarboe, Economic Analysis and Policy (2011), 41(1), pp. 49-70

DOI


Financial Deepening, Trade Openness and Economic Growth in Latin America and the Caribbean

T. Gries, M. Kraft, D. Meierrieks, Applied Economics (2011), 43(30), pp. 4729 - 4739

DOI


Interregional Migration, Self-selection and the Returns to Education in Brazil

T. Gries, M. Kraft, C. Piek, The Annals of Regional Science (2011), 46(3), pp. 707-732

DOI


Entrepreneurship, Structural Change and a Global Economic Crisis

T. Gries, W. Naudé, Entrepreneurship Research Journal (2011), 1(3)

DOI


2010

On the equivalence of Nash and evolutionary equilibrium in finite populations

B. Hehenkamp, A. Possajennikov, T. Guse, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization (2010), 73(2), pp. 254-258

DOI


Entrepreneurship and Structural Economic Transformation

T. Gries, W. Naudé, Small Business Economics (2010), 34(1), pp. 13 - 29

DOI


Strategic Unemployment

J. Angerhausen, C. Bayer, B. Hehenkamp, Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE) (2010), 166(3), pp. 439-461


Survival at the center—the stability of minimum differentiation

B. Hehenkamp, A. Wambach, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization (2010)(3), pp. 853--858


2009

China's provincial disparities and the determinants of provincial inequality

T. Gries, M. Redlin, Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies (2009), 7(2), pp. 259-281

DOI


Explaining Regional Export Performance in a Developing Country: The Role of Geography and Relative Factor Endowments

T. Gries, W. Naudé, Regional Studies (2009), 43(7), pp. 967-979

DOI


Linkages between Financial Deepening, Trade Openness and Economic Development: Causality Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

T. Gries, M. Kraft, D. Meierrieks, World Development (2009), 37(12), pp. 1849-1860

DOI


The Optimal Distance to Port for Exporting Firms

T. Gries, W. Naudé, Journal of Regional Science (2009), 49(3), pp. 513-528

DOI


DIVIDING BY DEMANDING: OBJECT DIVISION THROUGH MARKET PROCEDURES

C. Haake, International Game Theory Review (2009), 11(01), pp. 15-32

We discuss a model, in which two agents may distribute finitely many objects among themselves. The conflict is resolved by means of a market procedure. Depending on the specifications, this procedure serves to achieve bargaining solutions such as the discrete Raiffa solution, the Kalai-Smorodinsky solution and the Perles-Maschler solution. The latter is axiomatized using the superadditivity axiom, which in the present context is readily interpreted as resolving a specific source of conflict potential.


Entrepreneurship and regional economic growth: towards a general theory of start-ups

T. Gries, W. Naudé, Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research (2009), 22(3), pp. 309-328

DOI


2008

Two support results for the Kalai–Smorodinsky solution in small object division markets

C. Haake, Mathematical Social Sciences (2008), 57(2), pp. 177-187

DOI


Regional Determinants of Entrepreneurial Start-Ups in a Developing Country

T. Gries, W. Naudé, E. Wood, A. Meintjes, Entrepreneurship & Regional Development (2008), 20(2), pp. 111-124

DOI


Stable governments and the semistrict core

D. Dimitrov, C. Haake, Games and Economic Behavior (2008), 62(2), pp. 460-475

DOI


Trade and Endogenous Formation of Regions in a Developing Country

T. Gries, W. Naudé, Review of Developing Economics (2008), 12(2), pp. 248-275

DOI


The Shapley value of phylogenetic trees

C. Haake, A. Kashiwada, F.E. Su, Journal of Mathematical Biology (2008), 56(4), pp. 479-497

DOI


Monotonicity and Nash implementation in matching markets with contracts

C. Haake, B. Klaus, Economic Theory (2008), 41(3), pp. 393-410

DOI


Stability and Nash implementation in matching markets with couples

C. Haake, B. Klaus, Theory and Decision (2008), 69(4), pp. 537-554

DOI


Imitators and optimizers in a changing environment

B. Hehenkamp, O.M. Kaarbøe, Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control (2008), 32(5), pp. 1357-1380

DOI


On Maskin monotonicity of solution based social choice rules

C. Haake, W. Trockel, Review of Economic Design (2008), 14(1-2), pp. 17-25

DOI


Comments on: Transversality of the Shapley value

C. Haake, TOP (2008), 16(1), pp. 48-50

DOI


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2019

Bundling in a Distribution Channel with Retail Competition

J.M.J. Heinzel, CIE Working Paper Series, 2019

We analyze the incentives for retail bundling and the welfare effects of retail bundling in a decentralized distribution channel with two retailers and two monopolistic manufacturers. One manufacturer exclusively sells his good to one retailer, whereas the other manufacturer sells his good to both retailers. Thus, one retailer is a monopolist for one product but competes with the other retailer in the second product market. The two-product retailer has the option to bundle his goods or to sell them separately. We find that bundling aggravates the double marginalization problem for the bundling retailer. Nevertheless, when the retailers compete in prices, bundling can be more profitable than separate selling for the retailer as bundling softens the retail competition. The ultimate outcome depends on the manufacturers’ marginal costs. Given retail quantity competition, however, bundling is in no case the retailer’s best strategy. Furthermore, we show that profitable bundling reduces consumer and producer surplus in the equilibrium.


Credence Goods Markets with Fair and Opportunistic Experts

J.M.J. Heinzel, CIE Working Paper Series, 2019

We analyze a credence goods market adapted to a health care market with regulated prices, where physicians are heterogeneous regarding their fairness concerns. The opportunistic physicians only consider monetary incentives while the fair physicians, in addition to a monetary payoff, gain an non-monetary utility from being honest towards patients. We investigate how this heterogeneity affects the physicians’ equilibrium level of overcharging and the patients’ search for second opinions (which determines overall welfare). The impact of the heterogeneity on the fraud level is ambiguous and depends on several factors such as the size of the fairness utility, the share of fair physicians, the search level and the initial fraud level. Introducing heterogeneity does not affect the fraud or the search level when the share of fair physicians is small. However, when social welfare is not at its maximum, social welfare always increases if we introduce a sufficiently large share of fair physicians.


Credence Goods Markets with Heterogeneous Experts

J.M.J. Heinzel, CIE Working Paper Series, 2019

In this paper, we analyze a credence goods model adjusted to the health care market with regulated prices and heterogeneous experts. Experts are physicians and are assumed to differ in their cost of treating a small problem. We investigate the effects of this heterogeneity on the physicians’ level of fraud and on the patients’ search for second opinions. We find that introducing a fraction of more efficient low-cost physicians always increases social welfare, but in some cases only because of the raised physicians’ surplus. When the low-cost physicians’ cost advantage is small, imposing a share of low-cost physicians does not change the equilibrium fraud level. When the cost advantage is large, however, different changes in the fraud level occur depending on the share of generated low-cost physicians, the search rate and the initial level of fraud.


2018

The Influence of Bribery and Relative Reciprocity on a Physician's Prescription Decision - An Experiment

V. Hilleringmann, CIE Working Paper Series, 2018

Focusing on a physician's relationship to a briber and a patient, this experiment analyzes the influence of a bribe on a physician's treatment decision. We conduct a partner treatment, in which briber and physician play together for the whole experiment and a stranger treament, where briber and physician are re-matched every period. With the help of the two treatments, we vary the relative reciprocity between the physician and the two other actors, briber and patient. Additionally we use a follow up questionnaire to measure the behavioral motivation of the participants. We find that reciprocity leads to bribery relationships: In the partner treatment physicians act corruptly more often. Just the variation of the relative reciprocity between the treatments shows differences in the behavior of the subjects. Differences in the participants' preferences deliver no explanation for their behavior in our experiment.


Thoughts on Social Design

W. Trockel, C. Haake, in: Studies in Economic Design, Springer, 2018

One of the fundamental problems in applications of methods and results from mechanism design and implementation theory is the effective enforcement of theoretically established equilibria by which social choice rules are implemented. Hurwicz (2008) and Myerson (2009) introduce different concepts of formalizing enforcement of institutional rules via the introduction of legal and illegal games. In this note the relation of their concepts with that of a social system defined inDebreu (1952) is analyzed and its potential of being instrumental for modelling institution design is discussed. The existence proof for such a system, also known as generalized game or abstract economy had been the basis for the existence proof of a competitive equilibrium of an economy.


Feedback Pareto weights in cooperative NTU differential games

S. Hoof, CIE Working Paper Series, Paderborn University, 2018

This note deals with agreeability in nontransferable utility (NTU) differential games. We introduce state feedback Pareto weights to enrich the set of efficient cooperative solutions. The framework is particularly useful if constant weights fail to support agreeability, but cooperation is desired nonetheless. The concept is applied to an adverting differential game.


On unification of solutions to the bargaining problem

C. Haake, C. Qin, CIE Working Paper Series, Paderborn University, 2018

We establish axioms under which a bargaining solution can be found by the maximization of the CES function and is unique up to specification of the distribution and elasticity parameters. This solution is referred to as the CES solution which includes the NASH and egalitarian solutions as special cases. Next, we consider a normalization of the CES function and establish axioms, under which a bargaining solution can be found by the maximization of the normalized CES and is unique up to the specifications of the distribution and its substitution parameters. We refer to this solution as the normalized CES solution, which includes the Nash and Kalai-Smorodinsky solutions as special cases. Our paper contributes to bargaining theory by establishing unified characterizations of existing as well as a great variety of new bargaining solutions.


2017

Preis, Service oder Leistungen: Was beeinflusst besonders die Krankenkassenwahl von gesetzlich Versicherten?

H. Schmitz, in: Krankenversicherung im Rating, Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, 2017


Location Choice and Quality Competition in Mixed Hospital Markets

B. Hehenkamp, O. Kaarboe, Universität Paderborn, 2017


Evolutionary Equilibrium in Stochastic Contests - Entry, Effort, and Overdissipation

Y. Gu, B. Hehenkamp, W. Leininger, Universität Paderborn, 2017


Matching Strategies of Heterogeneous Agents under Incomplete Information in a University Clearinghouse

B. Hoyer, N. Stroh-Maraun, CIE Working Paper Series, Paderborn University, 2017

In actual school choice applications the theoretical underpinnings of the Boston School Choice Mechanism (BM) (complete information and rationality of the agents) are often not given. We analyze the actual behavior of agents in such a matching mechanism, using data from the matching mechanism currently used in a clearinghouse at a faculty of Business Administration and Economics at a German university, where a variant of the BM is used, and supplement this data with data generated in a survey among students who participated in the clearinghouse. We find that under the current mechanism over 70% of students act strategically. Controlling for students' limited information, we find that they do act rationally in their decision to act strategically. While students thus seem to react to the incentives to act strategically under the BM, they do not seem to be able to use this to their own advantage. However, those students acting in line with their beliefs manage a significantly better personal outcome than those who do not. We also run simulations by using a variant of the deferred acceptance algorithm, adapted to our situation, to show that the use of a different algorithm may be to the students' advantage.




2016

Stackelberg Competition among Intermediaries in a Differentiated Duopoly with Product Innovation

J. Manegold, CIE Working Paper Series, Paderborn University, 2016

On an intermediate goods market we consider vertical and horizontal product differentiation and analyze the impact of simultaneous competition for resources and the demand of customers on the market outcome. Asymmetries between intermediaries may arise due to distinct product qualities as well as by reasons of different production technologies. The intermediaries compete on the output market by choosing production quantities sequentially and for the supplies of a monopolistic input supplier on the input market. It turns out that there exist differences in product quality and productivities such that an intermediary being the Stackelberg leader has no incentive to procure inputs, whereas in the role of the Stackelberg follower will participate in the market. Moreover, we find that given an intermediary is more competitive, his equilibrium output quantity is higher when being the leader than when being the follower. Interestingly, if the intermediary is less competitive and goods are complements, there may exist asymmetries such that an intermediary being in the position of the Stackelberg follower offers higher output quantities in equilibrium than when being in the position of the Stackelberg leader.


An Economic Theory of 'Destabilization War'

T. Gries, C. Haake, 2016

While Islamic State is the most present example, it is a fact that in many places around the globe, throughout history initially small groups have tried to challenge and destabilize or even overthrow governments by means of terrorist and guerrilla strategies. Therefore, we answer two questions. Why does a small group of insurgents believe it can overthrow the government by turning violent, even if the government is clearly superior? And how does a conflict develop into terrorism, a guerilla war, or a major conventional civil war, or is resolved peacefully? We develop a formal model for rebels and government and derive optimal choices. Further, we focus on three elements as important ingredients of a "destabilization war". All three of these - large random events, time preference (which we relate to ideology), and choice of duration of fight - are rarely considered in formal conflict theory. We can answer the above two questions using game theory analysis. First, insurgents rise up because they hope to destabilize through permanent challenging attacks. In this context, large randomness is an important ally of rebels. While each individual attack may have a low impact, at some point a large random event could lead to success. Hence, the duration of activities is a constitutive element of this kind of armed conflict. Patience (low time preference), which may reflect rebels' degree of ideological motivation, is crucial. Second, the mode of warfare or the conflict resolutions that develop are generally path-dependent and conditioned on the full set of options (including compromise). Various conditions (level of funding, ease of recruitment, access to weapons) influence different modes of warfare or a peaceful compromise in a complex way.


Do talented women shy away from competition?

B. Hoyer, T. van Huizen, L. Keijzer, T. Rezai Khavas, S. Rosenkranz, 2016

We study the willingness to compete in a cognitive task among an entire cohort of fresh man business and economics students. Combining data from a lab-in-thefield experiment with university admissions data, we trace the gender gap in competitiveness at different levels of high school performance. Our results confirm that, on average, men choose to compete more often. The gender gap disappears, however, among students with above average high school performance. Female high school top performers are equally competitive as their male counterparts. In fact, the overall gender gap is entirely driven by the group of female high school underperformers who shied away from competition, even when they performed well in our task. Overall, our findings suggest that high school grades are more than just a signal of cognitive abilities, because they seem to influence the receivers selfperception of his or her performance in a competitive environment involved in later on in life.


2015

Strategic Formation of Customer Relationship Networks

S. Brangewitz, C. Haake, P. Möhlmeier, Universität Paderborn, 2015

We analyze the stability of networks when two intermediaries strategically form costly links to customers. We interpret these links as customer relationships that enable trade to sell a product. Equilibrium prices and equilibrium quantities on the output as well as on the input market are determined endogenously for a given network of customer relationships. We investigate in how far the substitutability of the intermediaries' products and the costs of link formation influence the intermediaries' equilibrium profits and thus have an impact on the incentives to strategically form relationships to customers. For networks with three customers we characterize locally stable networks, in particular existence is guaranteed for any degree of substitutability. Moreover for the special cases of perfect complements, independent products and perfect substitutes, local stability coincides with the stronger concept of Nash stability. Additionally, for networks with n customers we analyze stability regions for selected networks and determine their limits when n goes to infinity. It turns out that the shape of the stability regions for those networks does not significantly change compared to a setting with a small number of customers.





2014



Low Carbon Economics - Theory and application

T. Gries, in: Low Carbon Economics , 2014, pp. 361 - 382


Maritime Piracy: Socio-Economic, Political, and Institutional Determinants

T. Gries, M. Redlin, Paderborn University, CIE Center for International Economics, 2014



2013

A crook is a crook ... but is he still a crook abroad? On the effect of immigration on destination-country corruption

E. Dimant, T.. Krieger, M. Redlin, Wilfried-Guth-Stiftungsprofessur für Ordnungs- und Wettbewerbspolitik, Universität Freiburg, 2013



Cooperative Transfer Price Negotiations under Incomplete Information

S. Brangewitz, C. Haake, CIE Working Paper Series, Paderborn University, 2013

In this paper, we analyze a model in which two divisions negotiate over an intrafirm transfer price for an intermediate product. Formally, we consider bargaining problems under incomplete information, since the upstream division’s (seller's) costs and downstream division's (buyer's) revenues are supposed to be private information. Assuming two possible types for buyer and seller each, we first establish that the bargaining problem is regular, regardless whether incentive and/or efficiency constraints are imposed. This allows us to apply the generalized Nash bargaining solution to determine transfer payments and transfer probabilities. Furthermore, we derive general properties of this solution for the transfer pricing problem and compare the model developed here with the existing literature for negotiated transfer pricing under incomplete information. In particular, we focus on the models presented in Wagenhofer (1994).




2012

Poverty in Shenzhen

T. Gries, J. Xue, in: Rising China in the Changing World Economy, 2012, pp. 396 - 412



Add-On Premiums Increase Price Transparency: More Policy Holders Switch Health Plans

H. Schmitz, P. Eibich, N. Ziebarth, in: DIW Economic Bulletin, 2nd ed., German Institute for Economic Research, 2012, pp. 15-24


Network Disruption and the Common Enemy Effect

B. Hoyer, K. De Jaegher, 2012

The phenomenon that groups or people work together when they face an opponent, although they have little in common otherwise, has been termed the "common enemy effect". We study a model of network formation, where players can use links to build a network, knowing that they are facing a common enemy who can disrupt the links within the network, and whose goal it is to minimize the sum of the benefits of the network. We find that introducing a common enemy can lead to the formation of stable and efficient networks as well as fragmented networks and the empty network.


2011

Trade Openness and Economic Growth: A Panel Causality Analysis

T. Gries, M. Redlin, Paderborn University, CIE Center for International Economics, 2011, pp. 24


Internationale Umweltpolitik bei akkumulierender und asymmetrischer Verschmutzungsdynamik

T. Gries, in: Zukunftsfähige Wirtschaftspolitik für Deutschland und Europa, Springer, 2011, pp. 215 - 246


Zusatzbeiträge erhöhen die Preistransparenz: mehr Versicherte wechseln die Krankenkasse

H. Schmitz, P. Eibich, N. Ziebarth, in: Wochenbericht, German Institute for Economic Research, 2011, pp. 3-12


2010

Short-run and Long-run Dynamics of Growth,Inequality and Poverty in the Developing World

T. Gries, M. Redlin, Paderborn University, CIE Center for International Economics, 2010, pp. 21


Effizienz Deutscher Krankenhäuser im Zeitablauf

H. Schmitz, B. Augurzky, 2010


2008

China’s provincial disparities and the determinants of provincial inequality

T. Gries, M. Redlin, Paderborn University, CIE Center for International Economics, 2008, pp. 45


International integration and regional development in China

T. Gries, M. Redlin, WIDER Research Papers, United Nations University (UNU), 2008, pp. 37


2007

Educational Disparity and Income Inequality in Urban China

T. Gries, J. Xue, in: The Economic Science, 2007, pp. 101 -116


Global Shift – The European Union, the United States, and the Emergence of China

T. Gries, in: 50 Years of EU Economic Dynamics, Springer, 2007, pp. 25-45


2005


On Global Economic Growth and the Prospects for Africa to Catch Up

T. Gries, W. Naudé, in: Multinational Enterprises, Foreign Direct Investment and Growth in Africa: South African Perspectives, Physica-Verlag, 2005, pp. 7-36


Employment Effects of Foreign Direct Investments - A Theoretical Analysis with Heterogenous Labour

T. Gries, S. Jungblut, in: Multinational Enterprises, Foreign Direct Investment and Growth in Africa: South-African Perspectives, Physica-Verlag, 2005, pp. 229 - 245


Rent a Bureaucrat

T. Gries, G. Sievert, A. Wieneke, in: Finanzwissenschaft im Wandel, Peter Lang Verlagsgruppe, 2005


2004

Obstacles Facing German Enterprises in South Africa

B.M. Gilroy, T. Gries, W.A. Naudé, K. Schmidt, in: Multinational Enterprises, Foreign Direct Investment and Growth in Africa: South African Perspectives, 2004, pp. 197-208


2003

Neue Wachstums- und Innovationspolitik in Europa

T. Gries, A. Jungmittag, P.J. Welfens, Physica-Verlag, 2003


2002


2001


1999

Globalization, Economic Growth and Innovation Dynamics

T. Gries, J. Addison, D. Audretsch, H. Grupp, P. Welfens, Springer-Verlag, 1999


1998


The Impacts of Information Technologies on Innovation Dynamics and Labor Demand

T. Gries, S. Jungblut, in: Economic Aspects of Digital Information Technology, DUV, 1998


The Dynamics of Growth and Employment in a Two-Sector Model of Job Matching

T. Gries, S. Jungblut, in: Operations Research Proceedings 1997, Springer, 1998, pp. 241-246


Information Technologies, Endogenous Human Capital Depreciation and Unemployment

T. Gries, H. Meyer, in: Economic Aspects of Digital Information Technology, DUV, 1998



1997

Catching-up of Economies in Transformation

T. Gries, S. Jungblut, in: Banking, International Capital Flows and Growth in Europe, Springer-Verlag, 1997, pp. 297 - 311


1996

A Dynamic Model of a Reconstruction Economy

T. Gries, in: Modelling and Analysing Economies in Transition, 1996


Repetitorium Mikroökonomik

T. Gries, G. Sieg, H. Strulik, Springer-Verlag, 1996


1995

Neue regionale Wachstumstheorie und Humankapital als regionaler charakteristischer Faktor

T. Gries, in: Standort und Region, Neue Ansätze zur Regionalökonomik, Mohr (Siebeck), 1995



1989


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